the most well-known type of reflective surface is the 'cool roof'. while cool roofs are mostly associated with white roofs, they come in a variety of colors and materials and are available for both commercial and residential buildings. today's cool roof pigments allow metal roofing products to be energystar rated in dark colors, even black.
m-type roof gambrel roof: clerestory roof: saw-tooth roof: hip roof: half-hip roof: tented or pavilion roof: gablet roof or dutch gable example with recessed upper gable and eaves: rhombic roof: rainbow roof: barrel roof: bow roof: conical roof: spire: onion dome: welsh spire: gable roof with eaves cross-gabled building with squatter projecting wing and t-shaped plan
cost the cost of solar shingles can range from $3.80 per watt up to $9.00 per watt installed depending on the manufacturer, technology used, and system size. 13 as of may 2019, the average cost of a traditional, roof-mounted residential solar panel installation in the united states was just above $3.00 per watt, according to the solar energy industry association . 14
roof shingles, like other building materials on vernacular buildings, are typically of a material locally available. the type of shingle is taken into account before construction because the material affects the roof pitch and construction method: some shingles can be installed on lath where others need solid sheathing sheeting on the roof deck .
a sod roof, or turf roof, is a traditional scandinavian type of green roof covered with sod on top of several layers of birch bark on gently sloping wooden roof boards. until the late 19th century, it was the most common roof on rural log houses in norway and large parts of the rest of scandinavia.
the slate roof is often considered the best type of roofing. a slate roof may last 75 to 150 years, and even longer. however, slate roofs are often expensive to install – in the usa, for example, a slate roof may have the same cost as the rest of the house.
the primary roof covering on houses in north america are asphalt shingles, but some have other types of roof shingles or metal roofs. tile and thatch roofs are more common in europe than north america. some roofing materials help reduce air conditioning costs in hot climates by being designed to reflect light.
cost-effectiveness. the process of liquid roofing provides a cost-effective method of making a new or existing roof waterproof. it can deliver up to 25 years performance depending on the coating system employed. it is estimated that liquid roofing is 70% less expensive than overall roof replacement in refurbishment situations.
zoster vaccines are two vaccines that have been shown to reduce the rates of herpes zoster also known as shingles . one type, zostavax, is essentially a larger-than-normal dose of the chickenpox vaccine, as both shingles and chickenpox are caused by the same virus, the varicella zoster virus vzv . a recombinant version, shingrix, was approved in the united states in 2017.
a metal roof is a roofing system made from metal pieces or tiles characterized by its high resistance, impermeability and longevity. it is a component of the building envelope. zinc, copper and steel alloys are commonly used.
in rural scandinavia, wood shingle roofs were a common roofing material until the 1950s. disputed – discuss wood shingles are susceptible to fire and cost more than other types of shingle so they are not as common today as in the past. distinctive shingle patterns exist in various regions created by the size, shape, and application method.
flashing types are named according to location or shape: roof flashing placed around discontinuities or objects which protrude from the roof of a building to deflect water away from seams or joints and in valleys where the runoff is concentrated. wall flashing
shingles, also known as zoster or herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area. typically the rash occurs in a single, wide stripe either on the left or right side of the body or face. two to four days before the rash occurs there may be tingling or local pain in the area. needs update otherwise there are typically few symptoms .
although tinplate is still available today for ceilings, roofing and flashing, it is generally considered expensive since the initial cost is more than that for common modern roofing types such as asphalt shingles or built-up roofs. a well-maintained tinplate roof or ceiling typically lasts several times longer than modern materials, and is .
a later study by patel et al. concluded that since the introduction of the chickenpox vaccine, hospitalization costs for complications of shingles increased by more than $700 million annually for those over age 60.