silane coupling agents play an important role in the preparation of composites from organic polymers and inorganic fillers such as glass, minerals, and metals. the general structure of silane coupling agents are ro 3-si-r‘-x, where x is an organofunctional group, r‘ is a small alkylene linkage, and ro is a hydrolyzable group such as an alkoxy group pape 1996 .
most established silanes used for natural fiber/polymer composites are trialkoxysilanes bearing a non-reactive alkyl or reactive organofunctionality. silane is hydrolyzed forming reactive silanols and is then adsorbed and condensed on the fiber surface sol gel process at a specific ph and temperature.
one of the most prolific applications of organosilicon compounds is their use as coupling agents. a coupling agent is defined as a compound which provides a chemical bond between two dissimilar materials, usually an inorganic and an organic.
coupling agents based on titanium and zirconium have been used to improve adhesive properties between polymers and filler-particles and to treat aluminium alloy for adhesive bonding 16 .like the silanes, they react with surface hydroxyl groups as shown below, but there is no condensation polymerisation to produce a polymer network at the interface.
replacing grafted anhydride polyolefin coupling agents with copolymers in which the anhydride is one of the reactive monomers is a recent development in wood-plastic composites. among the benefits of this approach is that less of the coupling agent is needed, dupont has developed a grade of fusabond w pc 567 d on copolymer of polyolefins.
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coupling agent. coupling agents are a wide range of chemical compounds, starting from fatty acids and its salts such as calcium stearate, organofunctional silanes widely used for glass fibers, titanates, zirconates and anhydrides hohenberger, 2001 .
the general formula for a silane coupling agent typically shows the two classes of functionality . x is a hydrolyzable group typically alkoxy, acyloxy, halogen or amine . following hydrolysis, a reactive silanol group is formed, which can condense with other silanol groups, for example, those on
to solve this problem a third material can help as a coupling agent. a coupling agent should have the ability to adhere to both surfaces by means of different functional groups. silane coupling agents are frequently used because of several outstanding aspects they have. this review is a survey on these coupling agents used in composites.
silane coupling agents play an important role in the preparation of composites from organic polymers and inorganic fillers such as glass, minerals, and metals. the general structure of silane coupling agents are ro 3-si-r′-x, where x is an organofunctional group, r′ is a small alkylene linkage, and ro is a hydrolyzable group such as an alkoxy group pape, 1996 .