a load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that is an active structural element of a building, that is, it bears the weight of the elements above wall, resting upon it by conducting its weight to a foundation structure. the materials most often used to construct load-bearing walls in large buildings are concrete, block, or brick.
accropode blocks are man-made unreinforced concrete objects designed to resist the action of waves on breakwaters and coastal structures. history. accropode 1981 the accropode is a single-layer artificial armour unit developed by sogreah in 1981. accropode concrete armour units are applied in a single layer. a first patent was filed in 1980 for the accropode bases-brevets.inpi.fr .
masonry is commonly used for walls and buildings. brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. concrete blocks, especially those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction.
concrete block, 'concrete masonry unit' cmu or 'breeze block' mistakenly called a cinder block , is a rectangular block or brick used in construction. -- dogears 23:27, 26 march 2006 utc i think i completely agree. but it'd sure be nice if we could find a reliable external source to cite on the terminology.
the walls of constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of constantinople today istanbul in turkey since its founding as the new capital of the roman empire by constantine the great.with numerous additions and modifications during their history, they were the last great fortification system of antiquity, and one of the most complex and .
a cavity wall is composed of two masonry walls separated by an air space. the outer wall is made of brick and faces the outside of the building structure. the inner wall may be constructed of masonry units such as concrete block, structural clay, brick or reinforced concrete.
the lake placid tower in lake placid, florida, formerly named placid tower, tower of peace or happiness tower, is a closed observation tower 240 feet 73.2 m tall according to early sources before 1982 or 270 feet 82.3 m tall according to late sources after 1986 . however, no physical modification of the tower occurred in the interim that would explain a 30-foot increase in height.
older homes may have even lower basement heights as the basement walls were concrete block and thus, could be customized to any height. modern builders offer higher basements as an option. the cost of the additional depth of excavation is usually quite expensive.
autoclaved aerated concrete aac is a lightweight, precast, foam concrete building material suitable for producing concrete masonry unit cmu like blocks. composed of quartz sand , calcined gypsum , lime , cement , water and aluminum powder , aac products are cured under heat and pressure in an autoclave .
an xbloc is an interlocking concrete block or 'armour unit' designed to protect shores, harbour walls, seawalls, breakwaters and other coastal structures from the direct impact of incoming waves.the xbloc model has been designed and developed by delta marine consultants since 2001 and has been subjected to extensive research by several universities.
the compressive strength of concrete masonry units and masonry walls varies from approximately 1,000 psi 7 mpa to 5,000 psi 34 mpa based on the type of concrete used to manufacture the unit, stacking orientation, the type of mortar used to build the wall, and other factors.
opus quadratum is an ancient roman construction technique, in which squared blocks of stone of the same height were set in parallel courses, most often without the use of mortar. the latin author vitruvius describes the technique.
hempcrete walls must be used together with a frame of another material that supports the vertical load in building construction, as hempcrete's density is 15% that of traditional concrete. studies in the uk indicate that the performance gain between 9” 22cm and 12” 30cm walls is insignificant.
cement render consists of 6 parts clean sharp fine sand, 1 part cement, and 1 part lime. the lime makes the render more workable and reduces cracking when the render dries. any general purpose cement can be used. various additives can be added to the mix to increase adhesion. coarser sand is used in the base layer and slightly finer sand in the .
modern concrete wall systems use both external insulation and thermal mass to create an energy-efficient building. insulating concrete forms icfs are hollow blocks or panels made of either insulating foam or rastra that are stacked to form the shape of the walls of a building and then filled with reinforced concrete to create the structure.
building firewalls typically extend through the roof and terminate at a code-determined height above it. they are usually finished off on the top with flashing sheet metal cap for protection against the elements .
the tie in a cavity wall is a component used to tie the internal and external walls or leaves —constructed of bricks or cement blocks—together, making the two parts to act as a homogeneous unit. it is placed in the cavity wall during construction and spans the cavity.
every retaining wall supports a 'wedge' of soil.the wedge is defined as the soil which extends beyond the failure plane of the soil type present at the wall site, and can be calculated once the soil friction angle is known. as the setback of the wall increases, the size of the sliding wedge is reduced.
various types of concrete have been developed for specialist application and have become known by these names. concrete mixes can also be designed using software programs. such software provides the user an opportunity to select their preferred method of mix design and enter the material data to arrive at proper mix designs.
key features of former industrial space that makes for attractive use as a loft include high, unfinished ceilings, large windows, exposed brick or cinder block walls and exposed duct work. many industrial lofts have only partial height walls separating rooms or areas within the space. some lofts even preserve the industrial-era freight .
a compressed earth block ceb , also known as a pressed earth block or a compressed soil block, is a building material made primarily from damp soil compressed at high pressure to form blocks. compressed earth blocks use a mechanical press to form blocks out of an appropriate mix of fairly dry inorganic subsoil, non-expansive clay and aggregate.
after the concrete has set the wood may be removed, or left there permanently. in some cases formwork is not necessary - for instance, a ground slab surrounded by brick or block foundation walls, where the walls act as the sides of the tray and hardcore rubble acts as the base. see also