early fiber cement panels used asbestos fibers to add strength. ludwig hatschek patented asbestos-reinforced fiber cement in austria in 1901 and named it 'eternit', based on the latin term 'aeternitas', meaning everlasting. in 1903, schweizerische eternit-werke ag began fabricating the material in the city of niederurnen in switzerland.
also used to describe log building , corner post construction, post-and-plank, ständerbohlenbau german and skiftesverk swedish . this traditional building method is believed to be the predecessor to half-timber construction widely known by its german name fachwerkbau which has wall infill of wattle and daub , brick, or stone.
the fabrication process for precast concrete sandwich wall panels allows them to be produced with finished surfaces on both sides. such finishes can be very smooth, with the surfaces painted, stained, or left natural; for interior surfaces, the finish is comparable to drywall in smoothness and can be finished using the same prime and paint procedure as is common for conventional drywall construction.
this style of panel is commonly made from man-made materials such as mdf or plywood but may also be made from solid wood or tongue and groove planks. panels made from mdf will be painted to hide their appearance, but panels of hardwood-veneer plywood will be stained and finished to match the solid wood rails and stiles.
slipform stonemasonry was developed by new york architect ernest flagg in 1920. flagg built a vertical framework as tall as the wall, then inserted 2x6 or 2x8 planks as forms to guide the stonework. when the masonry work reached the top of a plank, flagg inserted another one, adding more planks until he reached the top of the wall.
fig 1: load resistance elements of an anchor system in a wall panel fig 2: lifting system model for a thin section wall panel the rigging arrangements can influence the applied anchor load , where statically indeterminate systems are not necessarily a design consideration, but can be used in practice.
frameless cabinets provide for wall oven front panel widths equal to the cabinet width see above . in such an installation the oven front panel occupies a similar profile as a cabinet door. accordingly, frameless installations for wall-oven make most efficient use of the available wall space in a kitchen.
the wattle may be made as loose panels, slotted between timber framing to make infill panels, or it may be made in place to form the whole of a fence or wall. the technique goes back to neolithic times.