in 1835, henri victor regnault, a french chemist left vinyl chloride in the sun and found white solid at the bottom of the flask which was polyvinyl chloride. in 1839 eduard simon, discovered polystyrene by accident by distilling storax. in 1856, william henry perkin discovered the first synthetic dye, mauveine.
polyvinyl siloxane pvs , also called poly-vinyl siloxane, vinyl polysiloxane vps , or vinylpolysiloxane, is an addition-reaction silicone elastomer an addition silicone . it is a viscous liquid that cures solidifies quickly into a rubber-like solid, taking the shape of whatever surface it was lying against while curing.
it can be polymerized to give polyvinyl acetate pva . with other monomers it can be used to prepare various copolymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate eva , vinyl acetate-acrylic acid va/aa , polyvinyl chloride acetate pvca , and polyvinylpyrrolidone vp/va copolymer, used in hair gels .
biodegradable additives are additives that enhance the biodegradation of polymers by allowing microorganisms to utilize the carbon within the polymer chain as a source of energy. biodegradable additives attract microorganisms to the polymer through quorum sensing after biofilm creation on the plastic product.
the eva copolymer which is based on a medium proportion of va approximately 4 to 30% is referred to as thermoplastic ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and is a thermoplastic elastomer material. it is not vulcanized but has some of the properties of a rubber or of plasticized polyvinyl chloride particularly at the higher end of the range. both .
vinylphosphonic acid is an organophosphorus compound with the formula c 2 h 3 po 3 h 2. it is a colorless, low-melting solid although commercial samples are often yellowish viscous liquids. it is used to prepare adhesives.as in other phosphonic acids, the phosphorus center is tetrahedral, being bonded to an organic group vinyl in this case , two oh groups, and an oxygen.
the use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products ppcps is on the rise with an estimated increase from 2 billion to 3.9 billion annual prescriptions between 1999 and 2009 in the united states alone. ppcps enter into the environment through individual human activity and as residues from manufacturing, agribusiness, veterinary use, and hospital and community use.
the environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products ppcps is currently being widely investigated.ppcps include substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock. more than twenty million tons of ppcps are produced every year. ppcps have been detected in water bodies throughout .
biodegradable additives are additives that enhance the biodegradation of polymers by allowing microorganisms to utilize the carbon within the polymer chain as a source of energy. biodegradable additives attract microorganisms to the polymer through quorum sensing after biofilm creation on the plastic product. additives are generally in masterbatch formation that use carrier resins such as .
in addition, closed-cell pvc foamboard is made up of polarized molecules otherwise known as dipoles. it has a very low moisture absorption. the mixture of polyvinyl chloride and polyurea has a good bond strength. closed-cell pvc foam takes solid shape due to its linear structure.